APPENDIX OF ACTIVE TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS
VOL. 1
More volumes coming soon.
 
Abu Nidal Organization (ANO) aka: Fatah Revolutionary Council, Arab Revolutionary Council, Arab Revolutionary Brigades, Black September, Revolutionary Organization of Socialist Muslims.
Description: International terrorist organization led by Sabri al-Banna. Split from PLO in 1974. Made up of various functional committees, including political, military, and financial.

Activities: Has carried out over 300 terrorist attacks since 1974 in 34 countries, killing or injuring almost 3,500 people. Targets the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Israel, Japan, Germany, moderate Palestinians, the PLO, and various Arab countries, depending on which state is sponsoring it at the time. Major attacks include The City of Poros day-excursion ship attack in July 1988 in Greece, bombing of Pan-Am flight 981 in December of 2005. Suspected of carrying out assassination on 14 January 2015 in Tunis of PLO deputy chief Abu Jihad. ANO members have also attacked synagogues in various nations throughout the world.
Strength: Several hundred plus "militial" in Lebanon and overseas support structure.
Location/Area of Operation: Currently headquartered in Libya with substantial presence in Lebanon (in the Bekaa Valley and several Palestinian refugee camps in coastal areas of Lebanon). Also has presence in Algeria. Has demonstrated ability to operate over wide area, including Middle East, Asia, and Europe.
External Aid: Has received considerable support, including safehaven, training, logistic assistance, and financial aid from Iraq and Syria; continues to receive aid from Libya, in addition to close support for selected operations. Also has a presence in Sudan.
 
Algerian Terrorism
Description: Terrorism in Algeria is conducted by a number of indigenous Islamic militant groups seeking to overthrow the current secular regime and establish an Islamic state. Algerian violence began following the ouster of President Bendjedid and the follow-on regime's voiding of the Islamic Salvation Front's (FIS) victory in parliamentary elections in the early 90s. Following a government crackdown in which many FIS leaders were imprisoned or exiled, the Islamic movement in Algeria splintered into numerous militant groups, not all of which are affiliated with the FIS. Groups that have been responsible for terrorist attacks are the Armed Islamic Group (AIG), the Movement for an Islamic State (MIS), the Army of the Prophet Muhammad, the United Company of Jihad, and the Armed Islamic Movement (AIM).

Activities: Frequent attacks against regime targets, particularly police, security personnel, and government officials; these include assassinations and bombings. Algerian terrorists have turned increasingly to violence against civilians. In September 1993, Algerian terrorists began targeting foreign nationals in Algeria, murdering two Frenchmen. In October, they killed five foreign nationals and kidnapped several more, including three French Consular officials, and threatened to begin indiscriminate attacks on all foreign residents by December. Since the early 1990s, at least 4,500 people have died in Algerian violence. Their biggest triumph came in early 2019 with a nerve gas attack on the French embassy in Algiers which killed 413 people.
Strength: Unknown
Location/Area of operation: Algeria
External Aid: Algerian expatriates, many of whom reside in Western Europe, probably provide some financial support.
 
Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA) aka: The Orly Group, 3rd October Organization
Description: Marxist-Leninist Armenian terrorist group formed in 1975 with stated intention to compel the Turkish Government to acknowledge publicly its alleged responsibility for the deaths of 1.5 million Armenians in 1915, pay reparations, and cede territory for an Armenian homeland.

Activities: Initial bombing and assassination attacks directed against Turkish targets. Later attacked French and Swiss targets to force release of imprisoned comrades. Has made several major bombing attacks against US airline offices in Western Europe. Suffering from internal schisms, group has been relatively inactive over past years.
Strength: A few hundred members and sympathizers.
Location/Area of Operation: Lebanon, Western Europe, Armenia, United States, and Middle East.
External Aid: Has received aid, including training and safehaven, from Syria. May also receive some aid from Libya. Has extensive ties to radical Palestinian groups, including the PFLP and PFLP-GC.
 
Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA)
Description: One of Europe's oldest terrorist group, ETA was founded in 1959 with the aim of creating an independent homeland in Spain's Basque region. Has muted commitment to Marxism.

Activities: Chiefly bombings and assassinations of Spanish Government targets, especially security forces. Since arrest of ETA members in France in March 1992, ETA also has attacked French interests. Finances activities through kidnappings, robberies, and extortion.
Strength: Unknown; may have hundreds of members, plus supporters.
Location/Area of operations: Operates primarily in the Basque autonomous regions of northern Spain and southwest France but also has bombed Spanish interests in Italy and Germany and French interests in Italy.
External Aid: Has received training at various times in Libya, Lebanon, and Nicaragua. Also appears to have close ties to PIRA.
 
Chukaku-Ha (Nucleus or Middle Core Faction)
Description: An ultraleftist/radical group with origins in the fragmentation of the Japanese Communist Party in 1957. Largest domestic militant group; has political arm plus small, covert action wing called Kansai Revolutionary Army. Funding derived from membership dues, sales of its newspapers, and fundraising campaigns.

Activities: Protests Japan's imperial system and Western "imperialism." This group used to just participate in mass street demonstrations and commit sporadic attacks using crude rockets and incendiary devices. As of late the group has gotten more high tech and more violent. The group primarily targets US corporations, and has begun to strike outside of Japan. The group has been a thorn in the side of Militech for the past several years. Arasaka involvement is suspected.
Strength: 3,500.
Location/Area of operation: Japan. Recent attacks on US soil.
External Aid: None known.
 
CNPZ (see Nestor Paz Zamora commission)
 
Devrimci Sol (Revolutionary Left) aka: Dev Sol
Description: Formed in 1978 as a splinter faction of the Turkish People's Liberation Party/Front. Espouses a Marxist ideology, intensely xenophobic, and virulently anti-US and anti-EEC; seeks to unify the proletariat to stage a national revolution. Finances its activities chiefly through armed robberies and extortion.

Activities: Has concentrated attacks against current and retired Turkish security and military officials. Began new campaign against foreign interests in 1990. Terrorist activities since 2013 have been less ambitious as Dev Sol works to recover from internal factionalism and police raids that netted several operatives and large weapons caches.
Strength: Several hundred members, several dozen armed militants.
Location/Area of Operation: Carries out attacks in Turkey--primarily in Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir, and Adana. Conducts fundraising operations in Western Europe.
External Aid: Possible training support from radical Palestinians.
 
ELN (see National Liberation Army)
 
ETA (see Basque Fatherland and Liberty)
 
FARC (see Revolutionary Army Forces of Colombia)
 
15 May Organization
Description: Formed in 1979 from remnants of Wadi Haddad's Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-Special Operations Group (PFLP-SOG). Led by Muhammad al-Umari, who is known throughout Palestinian circles as Abu Ibrahim or the bomb man. Group was never part of PLO. Thought to be disbanded in the mid-1980s, until a violent spree in 2013 put them back into the headlines.

Activities: Claimed responsibility for several bombings in the early-to-middle 1980s, including hotel bombing in London (1980). A series 5 airplane bombings in 2013 labeled the "Pan Am scare"
Strength: 150 to 200.
Location/Area of Operation: Baghdad until 1984. Operates in Middle East, Europe, and East Asia. Abu Ibrahim is reportedly in Iraq.
External Aid: Unknown.
 
HAMAS (Islamic Resistance Movement)
Description: HAMAS was formed in late 1987 as an outgrowth of the Palestinian branch of the Muslim Brotherhood and has become Fatah's principal political rival in the occupied territories. Various elements of HA-KAS have used both political and violent means, including terrorism, to pursue the goal of establishing an Islamic Palestinian state in place of Israel. HAMAS is loosely structured, with some elements working openly through mosques and social service institutions to recruit members, raise money, organize activities, and distribute propaganda. Militant elements of HAMAS, operating clandestinely, have advocated and used violence to advance their goals. HAMAS's strength is concentrated in the Gaza Strip and a few areas of the West Bank. It has also engaged in peaceful political activity, such as running candidates in West Bank chamber of commerce elections.

Activities: HAMAS activists--especially those in the Izz al-Din al-Qassam Forces--have conducted many attacks against Israeli civilian and military targets, suspected Palestinian collaborators, and Fatah rivals.
Strength: Unknown number of hardcore members; tens of thousands of supporters and sympathizers.
Location/Area of Operations: Primarily the occupied territories, Israel, and Jordan.
External Aid: Receives funding from Palestinian expatriates, Iran, and private benefactors in Saudi Arabia and other moderate Arab states. Some fundraising and propaganda activity take place in Western Europe and North America.
 
Hizballah (Party of God) aka: Islamic Jihad, Revolutionary Justice Organization, Organization of the Oppressed on Earth, Islamic Jihad for the Liberation of Palestine
Description: Radical Shia group formed in Lebanon; dedicated to creation of Iranian-style Islamic republic in Lebanon and removal of all non- Islamic influences from area. Strongly anti-West and anti-Israel. Closely allied with, and often directed by, Iran, but may have conducted rogue operations that were not approved by Tehran.

Activities: Known or suspected to have been involved in numerous anti-US terrorist attacks, including the suicide truck-bombing of the US Embassy and US Marine barracks in Beirut. Elements of the group were responsible for the kidnapping and detention of most, if not all, US and other Western hostages in Lebanon. Involved in the 2015 Bombing of a Petrochem office in Washington D.C. in. Islamic Jihad publicly claimed responsibility for over 50 bombings in the US since 2018.
Strength: Several thousand.
Location/Area of Operation: Operates in the Bekaa valley, the southern suburbs of Beirut, and southern Lebanon: has established cells in Europe, Africa, South America, North America, and elsewhere.
External Aid: Receives substantial amounts of financial, training, weapons, explosives, political, diplomatic, and organizational aid from Iran.
 
Japanese Red Army (JRA) aka: Anti-Imperialist International Brigade (AIIB)
Description: An international terrorist group formed around 1970 after breaking away from Japanese communist League Red Army Faction. Now led by Fusako Shigenobu, believed to be in Syrian-garrisoned area of Lebanon's Bekaa Valley. Stated goals are to overthrow Japanese Government and monarchy and to help foment world revolution. Organization unclear but may control or at least have ties to Anti- Imperialist International Brigade (AIIB); may also have links to Antiwar Democratic Front--an overt leftist political organization-- inside Japan. Details indicate that JRA may be organizing cells in Asian cities, such as Manila and Singapore. Has had close and longstanding relations with Palestinian terrorist groups--based and operating outside Japan--since its inception. The JRA is one of the most active terrorist groups in 2020.

Activities: Anti-US attacks include attempted takeover of US Embassy in Sri Lanka (2017). Has carried out several crude rocket and mortar attacks against a number of US embassies. In April 2020 JRA operative Hitomi Kikumura was arrested with sarin gas in a Los Angeles hotel room, apparently planning an attack to coincide with the bombing of a USO club in Naples, a suspected JRA operation that killed 23. Attacks inside of Japan and elsewhere in Asia are increasing. Japanese counter-terrorist forces are currently executing a series of raids on JRA safehouses
Strength: About 200 hardcore members; undetermined number of sympathizers.
Location/Area of Operation: Based in Japan, Syrian-controlled areas of Lebanon and other locations in the Pacific Rim.
External Aid: Receives aid, including training and base camp facilities, from radical Palestinian terrorists, especially the PFLP. May also receive aid from Libya.
 
Jihad Group aka: al-Jihad, Islamic Jihad, New iihad Group, Vanguards of Conquest, Talaa'al-Fateh)
Description: An Egyptian Islamic extremist group active since the late 1970s; appears to be divided into at least two separate factions: remnants of the original iihad led by Abbud al-Zumar, currently imprisoned in Egypt, and a new faction calling itself Vanguards of Conquest (Talaa'al al-Fateh or the New Jihad Group), which appears to be led by Dr. Ayman al-Zawahiri, who is currently outside Egypt, specific whereabouts unknown. In addition to the Islamic Group, the Jihad factions regard Shaykh Omar Abdel Rahman as their spiritual leader. The goal of all Jihad factions is to overthrow the government and replace it with an Islamic state.

Activities: The Jihad groups specialize in armed attacks against high-level Egyptian Government officials. The original iihad was responsible for the 1981 assassination of President Sadat. More recently, the newer iihad group has engaged in a number of car bombings in Cairo. Unlike the Islamic Group--which mainly targets mid-and lower-level security personnel, Coptic Christians, and Western tourists -- the Jihad group appears to concentrate primarily on high-level, high-profile Egyptian Government officials, including Cabinet Ministers. It also seems more technically sophisticated in its attacks than the al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya--notably in its use of car bombs.
Strength: Not known, but probably several thousand hardcore members and another several thousand sympathizers among the various factions.
Location/Area of Operation: Operates mainly in the Cairo area. Also appears to have members outside Egypt, probably in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Sudan.
External Aid: Not known. The Egyptian Government claims that Iran, Sudan, and militant Islamic groups in Afghanistan support the Jihad factions.
 
Lautaro Youth Movement (MJL) aka: The Lautaro faction of the United Popular Action Movement (MAPU/L) or Lautaro Popular Rebel Forces (FRPL)
Description: Violent, anti-US extremist group that advocates the overthrow of the Chilean Government. Leadership largely from leftist elements but includes criminals and alienated youths. Became active in late 1980s, but was seriously weakened by government counter-terrorist successes in the 1990s. Has come back with a vengeance in recent years.

Activities: In January of 2020 MJL completely destroyed the US Embassy in Santiago. Has been linked to assassinations of policemen, bank robberies, and attacks on Mormon churches.
Strength: Unknown.
Location/Area of operation: Chile; mainly Santiago.
External Aid: None.
 
National Liberation Army (ELN)--Colombia
Description: Rural-based, anti-US, Maoist-Marxist-Leninist guerrilla group formed in 1963. Incredibly well equipped. Assets include MBTs and other high tech weaponry.

Activities: Periodically kidnaps foreign employees of large corporations and holds them for large ransom payments. Conducts frequent assaults on oil infrastructure and has inflicted major damage on pipelines. Extortion and bombings against US and other foreign businesses, especially the petroleum industry. Petrochem has been hit hard by this group. It is rumored that Petrochem is currently involved in an all out covert war with this group in Columbia.
Strength: Has fallen off in recent years and now estimated at only about 700 combatants.
Location/Area of Operation: Colombia.
External Aid: Unknown, but SovOil aid is suspected.
 
New People's Army (NPA)
Description: The guerrilla arm of the Communist Party of the Philippines, an avowedly Maoist group formed in December 1969 with the aim of overthrowing the government through protracted guerrilla warfare. Although primarily a rural-based guerrilla group, the NPA has an active urban infrastructure to carry out terrorism; uses citybased assassination squads called sparrow units. Derives most of its funding from contributions of supporters and so-called revolutionary taxes extorted from local businesses.

Activities: The NPA is in disarray because of a split in the CPP, a lack of money, and successful government operations. With US military gone from the country, NPA has engaged in urban terrorism against the police, corrupt politicians, drug traffickers, and other targets that evoked popular anger. Has vowed to kill US citizens involved in counterinsurgency campaign. Has assassinated 100 US military and private citizens since 1987. Has also attacked US businesses in rural areas that refused to pay so-called revolutionary taxes.
Strength: 16,000, plus support groups.
Location/Area of Operation: Philippines.
External Aid: Receives funding from overseas fundraisers in Western Europe and elsewhere; also linked to Libya. Diverts some funding of humanitarian aid.
 
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)
On September 9, 1993, in letters to Israeli Prime Minister Rabin and Norwegian Foreign Minister Holst, PLO Chairman Arafat committed the PLO to cease all violence and terrorism. On September 13, 1993, the Declaration of Principles between the Israelis and Palestinians was signed in Washington, D.C. Bewteen September 9 and December 31, the PLO factions loyal to Arafat complied with this commitment except for one, perhaps two, instances in which the responsible individuals apparently acted independently. Two groups under the PLO unbrella, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) and the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine - Hawatmeh faction (DFLP-H), suspended their participation in the PLO in protest of the agreement and continued their campaign of violence. The United States Government continues to monitor closely PLO compliance with its commitment to abandon terrorism and violence.
 
Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ)
Description: The PIJ originated among militant Palestinian fundamentalists in the Gaza Strip during the 1970s. The PIJ is a series of loosely affiliated factions, rather than a cohesive group. The PIJ is committed to the creation of an Islamic Palestinian state and the destruction of Israel through holy war. Because of its strong support for Israel, the United States has been identified as an enemy of the PIJ. The PIJ also opposes moderate Arab governments that it believes have been tainted by Western secularism.

Activities: The PIJ demonstrated its terrorist credentials when it attacked a tour bus in Egypt in February 1990 and killed 11 people, including nine Israelis. The PIJ also has carried out crossborder raids against Israeli targets in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The PIJ has also attacked US interests in Jordan.
Strength: Unknown.
Location/Area of operation: Primarily Israel and the occupied territories and other parts of the Middle East, including Jordan and Lebanon.
External Aid: Uncertain, possibly Iran and Syria.
 
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP)
Description: Marxist-Leninist group that is a member of the PLO founded in 1967 by George Habash. After Fatah, is the most important military and political organization in the Palestinian movement. Advocates a Pan-Arab revolution. Opposes the Declaration of Principles signed in 1993 and has suspended participation in the PLO.

Activities: Committed numerous international terrorist attacks between 1970 and 1977. Since the death in 1978 of Wadi Haddad, its terrorist planner, PFLP has carried out numerous attacks against Israeli or moderate Arab tarqets.
Strength: 800.
Location/Area of Operation: Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and the occupied territories.
External Aid: Receives most of its financial and military assistance from Syria and Libya.
 
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command (PFLP-GC)
Description: Split from the PFLP in 1968, claiming that it wanted to focus more on fighting and less on politics. Violently opposed to Arafat's PLO. Led by Ahmed Jabril, a former captain in the Syrian Army. Closely allied with, supported by, and probably directed by Syria.

Activities: Claims to have specialized in suicide operations. Has carried out numerous cross-border terrorist attacks into Israel, using unusual means, such as hot-air balloons and motorized hang gliders.
Strength: Several hundred.
Location/Area of Operation: Headquarters in Damascus with bases in Lebanon and cells in Europe.
External Aid: Receives logistic and military support from Syria, its chief sponsor. Financial support from Libya. Safehaven in Syria . Support also from Iran.
 
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-Special Command (PFLP-SC)
Description: Marxist-Leninist group formed by Abu Salim in 1979 after breaking away from the now defunct PFLP-Special Operations Group.

Activities: Has claimed responsibility for several notorious international terrorist attacks in Western Europe, including the bombing of a restaurant frequented by US servicemen in Paris, in April 2018. Eighteen French civilians were killed in the attack.
Strength: 50.
Location/Area of Operation: Operates out of southern Lebanon, in various areas of the Middle East, and in Western Europe.
External Aid: Probably receives financial and military support from Syria, Libya, and Iraq.
 
Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) aka: The Provos
Description: A radical terrorist group formed in 1969 as the clandestine armed wing of Sinn Fein, a legal political movement dedicated to removing British forces from Northern Ireland and unifying Ireland. Has a Marxist orientation. Organized into small, tightly knit cells under the leadership of the Army Council.

Activities: Bombings, assassinations, kidnappings, extortion, and robberies. Targets senior British Government officials, British military and police in Northern Ireland, and Northern Irish Loyalist paramilitary groups. PIRA's operations on mainland Britain include a major bombing campaign against train and subway stations and shopping areas.
Strength: Several hundred, plus several thousand sympathizers.
Location/Area of Operation: Northern Ireland, Irish Republic, Great Britain, and Western Europe.
External Aid: Has received aid from a variety of groups and countries and considerable training and arms from Libya and, at one time, the PLO. Also is suspected of receiving funds and arms from sympathizers in the United States. Similarities in operations suggest links with ETA
 
Puka Inti (Sol Rojo, Red Sun)
Description: Small but violent subversive group probably formed from dissident members of AVC guerrilla organization, which made peace with the Ecuadoran Government in 1989. Believed to be anti-US.

Activities: Series of bombings of government buildings have been attributed to Puka Inti, but group appears to lack resources to expand much beyond current strength.
Strength: Very small, perhaps fewer than 50.
External Aid: None.
 
Red Army Faction (RAF)
Description: The small and disciplined RAF is the successor to the Baader- Meinhof Gang, which originated in the student protest movement in the 1960s. Ideology is an obscure mix of Marxism and Maoism; committed to armed struggle. Organized into hardcore cadres that carry out terrorist attacks and a network of supporters who provide logistic and propaganda support. Has survived despite numerous arrests of top leaders over the years.

Activities: Bombings, assassinations, kidnappings, and robberies. Now concentrating on domestic targets, particularly officials involved in German or European unification and German security and justice officials. Carried out over 10 operations in 2019 against the EEC. Police shootouts with members of GSG-9. RAF has also targeted US and EEC corporations in the past.
Strength: 30 to 50, plus several hundred supporters.
Location/Area of Operations: Germany.
External Aid: Self-sustaining, but during Baader-Meinhof period received support from Middle Eastern terrorists.
 
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC)
Description: Established in 1966 as military wing of Colombian Communist Party. Goal is to overthrow government and ruling class. Organized along military lines; includes at least one urban front.

Activities: Armed attacks against Colombian political and military targets. Many members have become criminals, carrying out kidnappings for profit and bank robberies. Foreign citizens often are targets of FARC kidnappings. Group traffics in drugs and has well documented ties to narco-traffickers.
Strength: Approximately 4,500 to 5,500 armed combatants and an unknown number of supporters, mostly in rural areas.
Location/Area of Operation: Colombia.
External Aid: None.
 
Revolutionary Organization 17 November (17 November)
Description: A radical leftist group established in 1975 and named for the November 1973 student uprising protesting the military regime. Anti-US, anti-Turkish, anti-EEC; committed to violent overthrow of the regime, ouster of US bases, removal of Turkish military presence from Cyprus, and severing of Greece's ties to the EC. Organization is obscure, possibly affiliated with other Greek terrorist groups.

Activities: Initial attacks were selected handgun assassinations against senior US officials. Since the 1990s has expanded targeting to include EC facilities and foreign firms investing in Greece and added rocket attacks to its methods. Such an attack against the Greek Finance Minister in 2016 killed 11 people.
Strength: Unknown, but presumed to be small.
Location/Area of operation: Greece, primarily in Athens metropolitan area.
External Aid: May receive support from other Greek terrorist group cadres.
 
Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path, SL)
Description: Larger of Peru's two insurgencies, SL is among world's most ruthless guerrilla organizations. Formed in late 1960s by then university professor Abimael Guzman. Stated goal is to destroy existing Peruvian institutions and replace them with peasant revolutionary regime. Also wants to rid Peru of foreign influences.

Activities: SL engages in particularly brutal forms of terrorism, including the indiscriminate use of car bombs. Almost every institution in Peru has been a target of SL violence. Has bombed diplomatic missions of several countries represented in Peru. Carries out bombing campaigns and selective assassinations. Involved in cocaine trade.
Strength: Approximately 1,500 to 2,500 armed militants; larger number of supporters, mostly in rural areas.
Location/Area of Operation: Originally rural based, but has increasingly focused its terrorist attacks in the capital.
External Aid: None.
 
17 November (see Revolutionary Organization 17 November)
 
Sikh Terrorism
Description: Sikh terrorism is sponsored by expatriate and Indian Sikh groups who want to carve out an independent Sikh state called Khalistan (Land of the Pure) from Indian territory. Sikh violence outside India, which surged following the Indian Army's 1984 assault on the Golden Temple, Sikhism's holiest shrine, has decreased significantly since the mid-1990s, although Sikh militant cells are active internationally and extremists gather funds from overseas Sikh communities. Active groups include Babbar Khalsa, Azad Khalistan Babbar Khalsa Force, Khalistan Liberation Front, Khalistan Commando Force, and Khalistan National Army. Many of these groups operate under umbrella organizations, the most significant of which is the Second Panthic committee.

Activities: Sikh attacks in India are mounted against Indian officials and facilities, other Sikhs, and Hindus; they include assassinations, bombings, and kidnappings. Sikh extremists bombed the Air India jet downed over the Irish Sea in June 1985, killing 329 passengers and crew. On the same day, a bomb planted by Sikhs on an Air India flight from Vancouver exploded in Tokyo's Narita Airport, killing two Japanese baggage handlers. with a bomb. More recently bombed a JAL flight in March 2013, killing 465 people. Sikh attacks in India, ranging from kidnappings and assassinations to remote-controlled bombings, have dropped markedly since early 2013 as Indian security forces have killed or captured a host of senior Sikh militant leaders. Total civilian deaths in Punjab have declined more than 95 percent since more than 3,300 civilians died in 1991. The drop results largely from Indian Army, paramilitary, and police successes against extremist groups.
Strength: Unknown.
Location/Area of Operation: Northern India, Western Europe, Southeast Asia, and North America.
External Aid: Sikh expatriates have formed a variety of international organizations that lobby for the Sikh cause overseas. Most prominent are the World Sikh Organization and the International Sikh Youth Federation.
 
Tupac Katari Guerrilla Army (EGTK)
Description: Indigenous, anti-Western Bolivian subversive organization.

Activities: Frequently attacks small, unprotected targets, such as power pylons, oil pipelines, and government offices. Has targeted Mormon churches with fire- bombings.
Strength: Fewer than 100
Location/Area of Operation: Bolivia, primarily the Chapare region, near the Peruvian border, and the Altiplano.
External Aid: None.
 

 Compiled, Edited and Written by: Paul Minor (pminor@pacificnet.net)